PDP Raped Nigeria For 16 Years, They Will Sell Remaining Investment If Voted Into Power-Buhari

President Muhammadu Buhari, the presidential candidate of the All Progressives Congress, APC, on Sunday accused the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) of planning to sell the remaining investment of the federal government, if voted into power on February 16.

The president made this remark in Gusau, the Zamfara State capital during his presidential campaign in the state.

He noted that within the sixteen years that the PDP piloted the affairs of this country, the party succeeded in selling the Nigeria Airways, NITEL. NICOM and many other valuable investments of the federal government of Nigeria.

According to him, the party was warming up to return into the saddle to sell the remaining investment for their personal aggrandizement, saying that was the main reason the party was accusing APC from every corner to deceive Nigerians.

President Buhari noted that the damages the party did to the economic sector of the country cannot be rebuilt in just four years of his administration.

The Nigerian leader further appealed to Nigerians never to allow the past mistakes of the PDP to repeat itself otherwise the country would be recorded as the notable capital of poverty .

President Buhari, therefore, assured that even if he has made some mistakes, Nigerians should give him a second chance, adding that he would implement a perfect governance that would favor every Nigerian in the next four years that he would pilot the affairs of the country.

Buhari reminded the people about how he handled the country during his military regime between 1983_ 1987, pointing out that it was that vindication that made him to come out for political power in 2003 up till now. “I will continue with the serious fight against corruption at all governmental units and ensure that insecurity in the country would be tackled with serious commitments,” he vowed.

Earlier, the national chairman of the APC, Comrade Adams Aliyu Oshomhiole, said that the PDP raped the national treasury very naked, now trying to come back to devour the remnants of what they had left.

According to him, since they had sold almost all the federal government investment, if Nigerians should allow them to come back into the corridors of power, the next action he said would be to sell the entire country, appealing to Nigerians never to allow them into the corridor of power.

He accused the PDP members of saying that the APC led government was accommodating corrupt politicians for the party to win the 2019 general elections.

“There in no corrupt person that would go unpublished under the leadership of APC.

“The PDP men were seriously trembling because they are very much aware that they had failed the country and its people,” he lamented.

Speaking further, the APC national chairman advised Nigerians never to allow PDP to deceive them for the second time, saying that the people should reflect on the unfortunate eighteen years rule of the party .

Continuing, Oshiomhole noted that during the sixteen years rule of the PDP, the country was importing rice, saying that during APC regime, the country was self sufficient in rice production.

He said that during the PDP period, the price of fuel was very high, saying that the then government did not utilize the oil revenue very judiciously. “If some one deceived you for the first time, he who deceived you is a fool but if you allow him to deceive you for the second time you that was deceived has become the fool,” he further lamented.

In his own speech, the state Governor, Alhaji Abdulaziz Yari, who is the state coordinator for APC presidential campaign in the state, urged the people not to fall prey to the sweet words and campaign strategies of the PDP, noting that the party has nothing to offer Nigerians.

He also appealed to Nigerians to reelecte President Muhammadu Buhari to enable him consolidate on the gains of democracy which he said the president had already started to rebuild the country.

This What Matters In Education, According To The World’s Best Teacher

The pupils at Alperton Community School in Brent, northwest London are among the most disadvantaged children in the UK.

Around 35 different languages are spoken in the secondary school, and for the overwhelming majority of students – 85% – English is an additional language. Many live in poverty, sharing a home with up to five other families, and some are exposed to gang violence.

For some of the pupils starting at Alperton Community School, it’s often the first time they have been inside a British classroom. They feel intimidated and isolated, and breaking down those barriers is no mean feat. But they have the good fortune to be taught by the world’s best teacher.

Andria Zafirakou, the 2018 winner of the Global Teacher Prize , spoke to the World Economic Forum about the key to unlocking these children’s futures.

Education charity the Varkey Foundation set up the $1m prize to recognize the importance of great teachers. Zafirakou won the award not only because of her passion and dedication to her field, but also because of the enormous effort she puts into creating an inclusive and cohesive classroom.

For the last 12 years, she has taught art and textiles at Alperton. As well as being a form of artistic expression, Zafirakou believes art is fundamental to children’s development – and even life-changing.

“Students who don’t speak English can’t write an essay, they can’t access any of the other curricula, but in arts, all you are asking them to do is draw and explore materials. They’re free to express themselves; everyone has stories to tell, and through art, we are raising their confidence and self-esteem and allowing them to find and tell those stories.”

One of the most obvious examples of the life-changing power of art, Zafirakou says, is the impact it has on students with special educational needs.

“(These children) may not be achieving at the same rate and to the same standard as the other students in their cohort. But in art, they get more time, and they can learn at their own pace. When you’re learning at your own pace, you’re producing the work you want to produce and you feel proud of the outcome.

“There are no right or wrong answers with art, so pupils will repeatedly go back and persevere with their work. I could tell you endless stories of the transformative effect it has. When they feel that they are good in the arts, they then get confidence and it helps them engage in other lessons. Art is a catalyst that switches them on to learning.”

In Zafirakou’s diverse classroom, the arts can also be a great leveller. “The job of education is to be inclusive,” she says. “There shouldn’t be any barriers preventing children from having access to a high quality education and being able to achieve in order to compete for a good job.”

Creativity matters

Since winning the prize Zafirakou has been on a whirlwind schedule of appearances, speeches and conferences – “I’m keeping a list but I’ve lost count, it could be 100” – to spread her message about the importance of art in education.

“With art it’s not about the end product, it’s the process, the journey, it’s the skills and knowledge children learn on the way to get to that final outcome. From that, they are able to identify who they are, what excites them, what triggers them and they can make their own mark in school and in society.”

But it’s not just inclusivity that art fosters, it also helps children develop the skills they need in order to thrive in the Fourth Industrial Revolution . But while governments and education leaders chase PISA (Programme for International Assessment) scores and, in the UK and some other countries favour rote learning of maths , creativity is taking a back seat.

“Some countries and leaders still don’t understand the importance of the creative arts and it’s really worrying,” Zafirakou says. “It’s a very exciting time – what will the next generation be able to achieve with new technology? But it also brings lots of problems with it. We need children to be the problem-solving generation, and unless we teach them problem-solving skills, which come from the creative subjects, it won’t happen.”

The beauty of the art curriculum in the UK, Zafirakou says, is that there’s some freedom for schools to decide how they want to teach it. “We need to take that same approach to the other subjects, because our children are leaving secondary school and all they’re able to do is regurgitate information. They find it hard to think in a creative way or to find solutions to problems because their brains haven’t been trained like that.”

According to Zafirakou, governments are wary of art because, unlike in mathematics or science, achievement is hard to measure. But she points to the results of her own school, which has prioritized the arts. Last year Alperton was shortlisted for “ Secondary School of the Year ” in the TES School Awards. The school also achieves outstanding GCSE results – exams taken by students aged 14 to 16 in England, Wales and Northern Ireland – and is ranked in the top 1 to 5% of all schools in the UK for improving children’s achievement.

Even PISA, which is better known for measuring students’ maths, reading and science abilities, is recognizing the importance of also developing their creativity. By 2021 it will make creative thinking the “innovative assessment domain” of their testing.

Few would disagree with Nelson Mandela’s assertion that “education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world”.

Indeed, the whole premise of the Global Teacher Prize is to give the profession the recognition it deserves. Yet teaching is in trouble.

Across the world, millions of children receive a substandard education. And the problem is compounded by a shortage of teachers. In the UK thousands leave the profession every year citing unbearable workloads and pressure, while the US has seen strikes over poor pay and conditions.

To make matters worse, education funding is, in many countries, stretched to breaking point and the focus on STEM skills has led to schools dropping arts subjects from their curriculums.

“The pressure is so intense because we are held to account by the results of our students and how well we do as a school. Funding cuts have crippled us and the first things to go are the valuable support staff and the arts because they’re not seen in our country as being a necessity,” Zafirakou explains.

“I think the fact that we have lots of migrant communities joining our schools is an added pressure. Language barriers obviously causes problems in the classroom environment, but the lovely thing about it is that students and staff get the opportunity to meet and get to know new communities.”

Despite the profession’s many challenges, Zafirakou couldn’t imagine doing anything else: “Teaching wasn’t a choice; it was destiny”. She recalls her mother and father returning from a parents’ evening with a message from her teachers: “Stop telling us what to do”. She was seven years old at the time.

“Apparently I used to be very bossy,” Zafirakou says, laughing. “I remember sitting in art lessons in secondary school and looking around and planning the display, the environment, how to set up tables. It was always there.”

‘Teaching doesn’t finish with the bell’

Thirty London schools are already involved, and she has plans to extend the programme throughout the UK.

“I haven’t slept! It’s been incredible because the art world has been completely behind me and my mission. Lots of artists have signed up, and we’ve already got some really exciting collaborations and projects taking place.”

The aim is to not only raise the profile of the arts, but of teaching too. In an ideal world, all teachers would be acknowledged in the way Zafirakou has been since she took home the prize.

“I don’t think there is any difference between me and any other teacher,” she says. “It’s a wonderful job but it’s tough. No-one’s counting how many hours you put into your school day, and you’re dealing with the emotional part of helping a child, especially if they have complex needs or issues.

“For me, it’s the fact that every child matters. Children are not robots, they have different learning needs that have to be met. Teaching should never finish with the bell – we are responsible for looking after the wellbeing and development of the child as an individual, it’s not just about the academic mindset.”

Zafirakou is so concerned for the safety and wellbeing of her pupils that she escorts them to the bus after school to ensure they aren’t targeted by the gangs in the area. She has also learnt to say “hello”, “goodbye” and other basic greetings in many of the languages spoken at her school, which helps students to feel welcome.

“People keep saying to me you’re so kind, you’re so caring, but isn’t that our job? I want to start a revolution to get arts back in the curriculum. That’s the kind of school that I would want my child to go to.”

At the start of this year Andria Zafirakou will travel the world, including visiting the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting in Davos, to spread her message about the importance of art in education.

Nine Villages, Including Children killed In The Latest Kaduna State Community Attack

The Kaduna State government has confirmed the killing of nine citizens after an attack on Nandu village in Sanga Local Government Area (LGA) in an early morning attack on Saturday.

In a statement issued by Samuel Aruwan, Senior Special Assistant to the Governor (Media and Publicity), on Saturday, the government condemned the killings.

Nasir El-Rufai, Governor of Kaduna State, commiserated with the survivors and the families of the victims after being briefed by security agencies.

The statement read: “The Kaduna State Government has been briefed by the security agencies on the killing of nine persons by criminal elements, who attacked Nandu village in Sanga LGA, in the early hours of today.

“The security agencies have so far recovered nine corpses, including children. The attackers also burnt several houses in the village. The government condemns this attack on the lives and security of citizens and appeals to our communities to resist those who do not want peace.

“The governor, on behalf of the government and people of Kaduna State, commiserates with the families of the victims and prays for the repose of their souls.

“Government, security agencies, traditional and religious institutions will continue to work towards sustainable peace. In this moment of grief, we must come together to defeat the machinations of those who have no notion of respect for the lives of others.

“Violence has left an unacceptable toll of death and injury, loss of livelihoods, pain and fear. We must overcome this by respecting our common humanity, settling differences peacefully and promptly reporting threats and suspicions to the appropriate authorities. Evil will never triumph over our common humanity.

“Security agencies have been deployed in the area, and the State Emergency Management Agency has been directed to immediately provide relief materials to the affected community.

6 Things to do on Sunday That Will Make Your Week Easier

As much as I want to be the type of person who coasts into Monday morning clear-headed, meal-prepped, and organized, with an early bird workout under my belt — and on time for work — I’m not. I’m the person waking up late after hitting the snooze button multiple times, groggy from my “just one more episode!” late night Netflix habit, scrambling for breakfast, and gulping coffee in the car.

This latter approach is stressful, annoying, and rarely sets anyone up for success at the start of a busy week. That’s why I sourced the six best things to do on Sunday to make your weekdays so much easier.

There’s nothing worse than realizing you have five meetings in a row on a given afternoon, or you forgot about meeting your friend for lunch. On Sunday, look at your calendar for the next several days with intention. Are you traveling? Do you need to cancel, add, or adjust anything? What’s missing from your to-do list? Reviewing what’s already on your schedule in the coming week makes you feel more prepared to handle it.

Also, remember to make time for the good stuff: a date night, conversations with your bestie, etc. It is easy to plan, plan, plan for all the things you *have* to do, but you’ll go crazy if you don’t create space for a little fun.

2. Do just a little meal prep.

You don’t have to spend your last precious weekend day slaving away in the kitchen, I swear. However, you will benefit from doing a little meal prepping on Sunday. And everyone is different: some people like to cook a whole bunch of meals at once and then freeze them, others make a plan based on what’s in the fridge or pantry, and some of us simply make it to the grocery store for the basics. This not only helps you eat healthy throughout the week, but removes the hassle of having to figure out what to eat at 8 pm after a long day or needing to stop at the store for more milk mid-week.

3. Tidy up.

Notice I didn’t say clean. By all means, if you like cleaning your living space over the weekend, that is a fantastic time to break out the vacuum and mop — but if that feels like too much, especially after a solid Sunday Funday, simply tackle all the clutter in about 15 minutes or so. Clear off the kitchen counter, wipe the bathroom mirror, fold the blankets on the couch, put away your make-up bag, get rid of the receipts spilling out of your purse, et cetera.

Wherever your eye catches a glimpse of messiness, just straighten up for a couple seconds until your place looks semi-presentable. Trust me: nothing’s worse than rolling out of bed Monday morning and immediately seeing the laundry basket of clean clothes that’s been staring you in the face for five days.

 4. Make a list for Monday.

Half the time I arrive at the office after a weekend, I don’t even know where to start: E-mails? Google Drive? My planner? Text messages? Making a quick list or plan for Monday morning, when you’re cool, calm, and collected on Sunday, will help you prioritize accordingly and be more efficient to begin your week.

5. Go to bed early.

I repeat. Go. To. Bed. Early. This allows you to wake up fully rested on Monday, which sounds like a small thing, but it is not, my friends. I can’t tell you how many Mondays have been a total waste because I didn’t get enough sleep. I know, you wanna stay up and scroll Instagram forever, but put your phone down, turn off the lights, and catch some sleep. Even better if you have clean sheets!

By hitting the hay earlier than usual, your body, mind and spirit will thank you (and probably your friends, parents and significant others, because listening to someone bitch about how Mondays are the worst is a total downer). If you find it challenging to go to bed early, try giving yourself an extra hour to wind down before bed.

6. Relax (Seriously).

I’ve been guilty of maxin’ and relaxin’ all weekend only to arrive at Sunday night with a serious case of the blues, and I’m probably not alone. To combat this, many people suggest shifting most of your weekend tasks to Saturday, so you can free up Sunday for self-care. Attend an extra-long yoga class, read a book, eat healthy, catch up with a friend, take a hot bath, do a face mask, see a movie — whatever feels semi-indulgent in a way that still allows you to start the week fresh and prepared.

What’s your go-to Sunday move to make your week easier? Share your best tips in the comments!

The Science Behind Your Decision-Making

Imagine you have just flicked a lighter. If you don’t see the flame, you will naturally try a second time. If after the second attempt it does not strike a flame, you will repeat your action again and again until it does. Eventually, you’ll see the flame and you’ll know that your lighter works. But what if it doesn’t? How long are you going to flick the lighter until you decide to give up?

Our everyday life is full of such decision dilemmas and uncertainty. We constantly have to choose between options, whether we make the most ordinary decisions – should I continue flicking this lighter? – or life-changing choices – should I leave this relationship? We can either keep on doing what we are already used to do, or risk unexplored options that could turn out much more valuable.

Some people are naturally inclined to take more chances, while others prefer to hold on to what they know best. Yet being curious and explorative is fundamental for humans and animals to find out how best to harvest resources such as water, food or money. While looking at the Belém Tower – a symbol of Portugal’s great maritime discoveries – from my office window, I often wonder what drives people to explore the unknown and what goes on in their brains when weighing pros and cons for trying something new. To answer these questions, together with Dr. Zachary Mainen and his team of neuroscientists, we investigate how the brain deals with uncertainty when making decisions.

From decision to action

Although the decisions we make greatly affect our everyday life, how we deliberate and commit is a complex process that we only partially understand. This topic has been largely studied from ethological and theoretical perspectives ( Cisek and Kalaska, 2010 ) and neuroscientists are beginning to uncover several brain areas that contribute to solving dilemmas and act upon them ( Gold and Shadlen, 2007 ). Yet, we are still far from being able to comprehend the sinuous path from decision to action, because even the most mundane decisions involve many brain areas and cooperative interactions between many cells ( Montague, 2008 ).

Take the example of the lighter. To decide whether to continue flicking, you must first gather information: is there a flame or not? This will activate the regions inside your brain that are responsible for processing sensory information such as sight or touch. Then, you may be satisfied if you see the flame, or surprised if you don’t. This is because such sensory information is communicated to your reward system. In turn, the reward circuitry, which releases the molecule dopamine , will help motivate the choice of your next action ( Dayan and Niv, 2008 ).

So, what should you do next? Well, if you see the flame, you can just continue pressing the button to keep it burning. But in the absence of a flame, you may start wondering whether the motion of your finger on the sparkwheel was decisive enough, or whether the lighter ran out of gas. The frontal areas of the brain, which are thought to control cognitive skills such as judgement and problem solving, may help you take into account this uncertainty. If you believe that the lighter still contains gas, you will flick one more time. Once again, this is your frontal cortex that will control the selection of such a voluntary action ( Miller, 2000 ).

Finally, you have to decide how much time you are willing to spend flicking the lighter. This will likely depend on whether you have another one handy. How stubborn you are may be regulated by serotonin, a neuromodulator that has been linked to patience ( Fonseca et al., 2015 ) and persistence ( Lottem et al. 2018 ) even when facing uncertain rewards.

Reconstructing the neural puzzle

At Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown in Lisbon, we have developed a simple task that re-creates the lighter-flicking experience. Here, mice naturally forage for water but drops are delivered sparsely and sometimes, at random, the water resource becomes depleted. This is just like a capricious lighter that produces flames inconsistently, until the reserve of gas suddenly runs low.

In our experiment, we carefully monitor the behaviour of the mice during this task to understand how persistent they are in searching for water, and when they give up to explore somewhere else. Using computational models, we can explain the main aspects of this decision-making process. According to Pietro Vertechi, my colleague who developed the model:

“By translating a difficult decision process (e.g. ‘After how many failures should I give up and change strategy?’) in a naturalistic setting (foraging for food or water), we can study cognition in parallel in mice and humans. Just like in the equivalent naturalistic scenario, the animal receives many different stimuli (from the colour of the box to the smell of the experimenter or the taste of the water), most of which are irrelevant to solving the task. Mathematical modelling tells us what are the important variables that the subject should be tracking (such as the number of consecutive failed attempts). We can then test what brain regions encode that information and how.”

Thus, to reconstruct piece by piece the neural puzzle of decision, we search for these interactive mechanisms in the mouse brain. To scrutinize the activity of different areas of the nervous system and uncover their role as decision-maker, we use state-of-the-art technologies. For instance, a recent technique called fibre photometry , allows us to detect very small signals in the reward system, such as dopamine release, while mice sample the water rewards.

Likewise, to listen at the conversation between neurons in multiple frontal areas, we use a novel technology that records the electrical activity of hundreds of neurons simultaneously while animals perform the task. Because this approach offers a fine spatiotemporal resolution, it has the potential to help us track how information travels within the brain while the decision is formed. Finally, genetically encoded optical switches, which are light-sensitive proteins called opsins , are used to remote-control neural activity using light flashes. This powerful tool allows us to directly control selected groups of cells, such as the neurons that release serotonin, and probe their effects on the behaviour. This could tell us why some animals hesitate while other jump to action.

Beyond the laboratory

A better view on the neural mechanisms that govern our choices could reveal what causes a person to persist in doing something regardless of the risk. Such propensity can lead to cognitive dysfunctions linked to addiction and other compulsive disorders. Thus, understanding the neural processes that control behavioural adaptations could have immense implications for society.

On the other hand, lack of persistence in the face of adversity is one of the trademarks of depressive disorders. Interestingly, although serotonin is the main target of antidepressant drugs, its exact function remains enigmatic. By testing the mechanistic role of this molecule on the modulation of decisions and voluntary actions, we hope to uncover a new fundamental role for this molecule that could potentially lead to innovative therapeutic strategies.

Although our work is far from a complete picture, it is paving the way, one stone at a time, to unravel one of neuroscience’s greatest mystery. The scientific answers that we are gaining about self-initiated actions and decisions may also contribute to philosophical debates such as the question of “free will” ( Rigato et al, 2014 ): Who is the decision-maker? Your brain?

Fela Makafui and big Sister fighting because of Medikal- Social media users claim

Fella Makafui and big sister fighting because of Medikal – Social media users claim
YEN | March 17, 2019

Information gathered by YEN.com.gh has it that actress Fella Makafui and her big sister, Fendy Fella may not be on good terms with each other.

According to sources, the problem between the formerly close siblings is as a result of Fella’s relationship with her boyfriend Medikal.

Fendy, according to the informants, was not in support of her sister snatching Medikal from Sister Deborah, hence, her cold attitude towards Fella.

Though YEN.com.gh cannot independently confirm these claims as being made by the social media users, our checks revealed that Fella Makafui has deleted all photos of her sister and the ones she shared together with her from her Instagram page.

A popular Instagram handle, thosecalledcelebs, in releasing the information, wrote that Fendy failed to attend the one-year anniversary celebration of Fella’s winery.

According to this social media user, their mother was trying to settle the dissention between the two sisters, but still things were getting out of hand.

Others have it that Fella Makafui was feeling bossy over her elder sister, and because she was the “one bringing money home”, her mother was supporting her against her big sister.

Yaa, another Instagram user, for instance, commented that mothers usually supported the one bringing money home:

yaa_pee: “Mothers will always support the ones bringing money home .”

Akosua also claimed that Fendy and Fella were fighting because she is not in support of her younger sister’s relationship with Medikal, indicating that the only way they could be close again would be after she broke up with him:

akosuashy: “She’s not in support of dat relationship n d little sister is furious don’t worry wen dey break up she will be d only one to comfort her dey will make up den♀️♀️.”

Bherlynder, appearing to have more juice to the information commented that the two sister were not on good terms:

_bherlynder_: “They aa not in good terms.”

Rytty noted that Fendy was so different from Fella:

iamdjprytty: “She is so different from her sis . I admire her a lot.”

Nana Akua also had more information:

nanakuayy: “Eeeii Maa i have notice this ever since Fella n Medikal started,have not seen her sis around anymore.Fendy was in Dubai when the drama abt Medikal started n she s focus on her hair business since someone hacked her old accounts.i love both sis n they shd come together again❤❤.”

With the foregoing, it seems Medikal and Fella Makafui must be having a tough time with their love affair.

No wonder Fella herself admitted in an earlier report by YEN.com.gh that their relationship has not been an easy one.

In a recent report, she is said to have bought a car for her mother.


By Naa Ayeley Aryee

What is Research Design-definition, types and characteristics

A painter sketches before creating a beautiful picture; a musician writes a rough notes succession before making up a great melody, and a researcher also does some preparations. This pre-research work is called a research design, and further study is impossible without it. So, what is research design? If you are doing a survey for your business or just for a school project, this information will come in handy.

A research design is applied to all spheres of human life: psychology, economics, linguistics, marketing, business, medicine and many others. So every business or science that faces problematic tasks resorts to help of research designers in the efforts to resolve problems. Actually, the methodology of research design exists to organise the survey in the most effective way and get the necessary data for solving current problems.

What is research design?

Research design definition may seem confusing. The design itself is research over research. In other words, it is an overall number of strategies you choose to conduct a survey in the most efficient, logical and coherent way. A research design is a theoretical tool. It is a plan of your actions before collecting information, so to say. To better understand the notion, it is necessary to resort to examples.

For instance, you are an entrepreneur, and you need to research the demand for your products on the market. You have a problem: you think that your rating is decreasing. In this case, the research design will help you to:

Identify the research problem. It will demonstrate to you if your question is actual and worth exploring. Review and synthesise previously collected information associated with your problem. In your case, it may be data on how your product was bought a year ago, or five years ago.Specify hypotheses and research questions. Concerning our example, you may collect data using queries like “How many items of my product were bought last month?”, or “Are there decreasing or increasing rates of buying my product?” And many other questions to present the problem in the broadest sense.Describe the data which will be necessary and explain how such data will be obtained. Providing that you decided to make an inquiry among users of your product, what would you ask? For example, the questions about quality and price correspondence, or the availability of the product on the local market.Describe the methods of analysis that will help you in determining whether your hypotheses were true or false. Step by step you will get a result, so analyse it, and think on further perspectives of development or methods to solve the problem and improve the situation.

What is research design meaning and characteristics?

People resort to research design to create a reasonable basis for further study. Therefore, its meaning is in the optimisation of a work process. An excellent study basis will create solid backing during the operation of the research. It is characteristic for a good plan of actions to provide researchers with:

Neutrality (according to research design principle, the study should be organised without subjectivity, sensitive topics and risks)Reliability (research design presupposes an invention of the most meaningful questions that are to ensure useful results of a study)Validity (the list of questions developed on the stage of research design will help you as a researcher to give adequate answers based on reliable sources. Therefore, the result of your study will be valid) Generalisation (research should be applicable to generations, and the results must be useful for humanity in general. The process of research designing contributes to the implementation of all the mentioned positive characteristics of a study)

What are the types of research design?

The issue of the survey determines research design types one has to choose while researching something. The data collected by YSC Libraries has shown that there are the following sixteen types of design:

1. Action research design reminds a natural circle. First hypothetical data is elaborated, and then it gets practical implementation. It gives a researcher a deeper understanding of the utility of findings, but the researcher’s overinvolvement in all stages of the survey may influence the outcome.

2. A case study design is elaborated to narrow down a considerably large field of research. It applies to specific phenomena or theory. It is directed on filling the study with details, but at the same time, it is not very reliable, because it concentrates only on a small part of a significant problem.

3. Casual design measures how one factor influences another one. It is based on associations, hypothesis and variations. But there is always a BUT. The matter is that not all events on the Earth are explained — causality and coincidences are also possible.

4. Cohort design is connected with the studies of groups of people. Such a design type is often used in medicine (to study illness) or sociology. Original data is produced during this study. But samples for the survey are not taken randomly, so cohort design deals with narrow specialisation.

5. Cross-sectional design is an organised number of steps created to analyse differences between different groups. The groups are not randomly selected and therefore finding representatives for surveillance with distinctive peculiarities may be difficult.

6. A descriptive design focuses on the organisation of observational methods. It is based on simple questions like Who, When, How, and What. The results become quite surfacing but are based on a large amount of data.

7. Experimental design organises research over control and experimental groups. It deals with the implementation of a methodology into an experimental group and comparison with the actions of the control group. However, it provides an artificial setting that may influence the outcome.

8. The exploratory design is a challenging but interesting type of survey. It is applied to problems that have not been discussed before. The result of such research may not be predicted, and the designed order is flexible. It deals with many hypothetical questions and at the same time gives out not definitive answers.

9. A historical design is a methodology that is applied to discover and analyse past events. Special methods typical only for historical sources survey are included here. But an obstacle here is sources availability and quality. Historical researches may be politically sensitive, but a right research design will help to avoid acute issues.

10. A longitudinal design is a number of actions applied to the same research from time to time (every month or year). It may be applied to schools, for example, when a class is surveilled every year to spot out the changes in children’s intellectual development. But it takes a long time to gather results and to wait for natural changes.

11. Meta-analysis is a type of survey when many existing ideas are analysed. It summarises knowledge gathered by other people and permits to develop new hypotheses. But it may be interrupted because of the lack of materials and is quite time-consuming.

12. Mixed type of research is good for proficient analytics who know how to deal with diverse approaches at the same time. It is good because both theoretical data and experimental results may be combined in one research work. It makes the understanding of the issue complete.

13. An observational design is a practical insight into the surveyed issue. It is suitable for sociological problems. The researched objects (usually they are people) know that they are watched and it causes a serious drawback: surveillance alters their behaviour and influences the result.

14. A philosophical design is a fascinating method. It is based more on concept analysing, critical thinking, challenging ideas, debates, discussions and logic. It is theoretical research that suits specific problems like the appearance of life on the Earth. One will not be able to design research on physics (where facts prevail) using philosophical approach.

15. A sequential design has many stages. As it is clear from the name, one stage goes after another in a progression. But, this type is also connected with the sampling method. Even though this exploratory design facilitates the survey processes by dividing materials into samples, it does not give a whole picture of the world as long as samples are only accidentally selected objects. For example, you want to find out how people of different races react to bad news. You will not be able to make an inquiry of all people in the world. It is even unlikely that you will experiment with more than 20 people in each group. So research will be considered very surfacing.

16. A systematic review is a special method of analysing data based on current practical issues. It is difficult to apply this type to some theoretical research because it is supposed to work with developing and not stable phenomena.

Hope you have found the answer to the question, “What is research design?”Conveying surveillance, not all people build strategies on how their research should look like. But that is what research design is invented for. From first sight, research design meaning is not so important, and its implementation demands more extra time on surveillance. But it is not so! A unique methodology of types of research design will help you to structure your study and apply correct methods of problem exploration. Therefore, it will simplify your work and make the result maximally effective.

5 ways to bring school curricula up to speed

With technology advancing at an unparalleled speed and scale, the process by which educational institutions develop and adopt new curricula no longer moves fast enough to prepare young people for the future of work. The curriculum development and implementation processes often take years and may be decided without the input of local or regional employers. They’re so time-consuming that even cutting-edge skills and information can be outdated when the new curriculum is adopted. What’s more, some educational institutions still focus on rote memorization and test performance, instead of on experiential learning, soft-skills acquisition and changes in mindset.

The time is ripe for a new curriculum-adoption process, one that marries employers’ needs with student learning in real time, operating at the speed of technology. Here’s how:

1. Partner with employers

ManpowerGroup’s recent global survey of 40,000 employers in dozens of countries found that 45% can’t find candidates with the skills they need. In Latin America, 50% of employers say they can’t find employees with suitable skills , at the same time as two out of five young people in the region are neither in school nor in the workforce. In Kenya, curricula that remain out of step with the needs of employers is threatening to undermine the country’s burgeoning petroleum industry. And in the UK, 90% of employers struggle to find employees with the right skill set , and two-thirds of employers believe the problem will either remain the same or get worse over the next three to five years.

As a result, some companies are hiring employees who lack the requisite skill set but show an aptitude for learning, and then training them for the job, essentially bypassing public education systems. Companies that circumvent established education systems in favor of their own only exacerbate the issue. Instead, employers and educators need to closely align.

Of course, high schools and colleges are more than a training ground for work; they prepare young people for life. The Atlantic , the New York Times and Forbes all recently articulated the value of a liberal arts education. Likewise, developing good citizens has long been a pillar of educational institutions across the globe, helping youth learn to serve their communities and become active global citizens. And a teacher’s ability to inculcate empathy and respect through cross-cultural learning opportunities has never been more relevant and necessary. Clearly, curricula cannot be driven entirely by employers’ needs.

However, we do young people a disservice by not working with local and regional employers to understand their skills gaps. Plugging these employment gaps not only benefits students’ long-term job prospects, but also immunizes communities against higher rates of youth unemployment and underemployment and the subsequent risks and consequences. In The Global Risks Report 2018 , the World Economic Forum ranks youth unemployment as one of three global risks that are most likely to lead to social exclusion, destabilized economies and polarized politics, all leading to more regional and global migration. Youth “joblessness remains alarmingly high in some countries and regions,” according to the report, and “even where job creation has picked up since the crisis, concerns are rising about the growing prevalence of low-quality employment and the rise of the gig economy.”

2. Teach skills that change mindsets

It’s not only employers who need certain skills in their workforce to succeed; students need them for their long-term success. Here’s how we described the phenomenon in a G20 policy paper we recently co-authored with The Brookings Institution :

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the WEF Closing the Skills Gap Project argue that the convergence of globalization, digitalization and demographic changes have reshaped the skills required for future work. Informality and a move away from a long-term manufacturing labor force means young people, school systems must be equipped to adapt to the changes in the labor market to take advantages of opportunities. This means a move away from schools teaching specific knowledge for tasks, to helping children and youths learn how to learn – giving them the capabilities to continually acquire new knowledge and work with others.

In “ Skills for a Changing World ”, Brookings undertook a scan of 102 countries to ascertain the breadth of skills that were included within their policies and curriculum. They found that the majority of countries intended to include a wide range of skills, but this range narrowed when examining actual documentation and curriculum. The most popular skills were communication, creativity, critical thinking and problem-solving. They conclude that the need to focus on a wider range of skills has existed for some time, at least in the rhetoric of education systems. But more needs to be done to ensure this translates into classroom practices.

3. Opt for experience-based learning

Although books and lectures have a place in the classroom, for students to be competitive in the workplace, the current ratio needs to flip – from students mostly working alone at their desks, to collaborating with small teams on real-world issues in which students have a stake.

In JA’s learning-by-doing programs, we get young people out of their seats and into the boardroom, as they build companies from the ground up. They develop a product they are capable of producing and create a business around it, serving as the company’s leadership, production staff and salesforce. As they learn and do, they multiply their self-efficacy – the knowledge that they have the skills to succeed and will eventually do so, in spite of disappointments and failures that crop up along the way. Students roll up their shirt sleeves and dive directly into the world of business, often creating a product that has societal benefits beyond profitability, all while learning critical entrepreneurship and employment skills.

In the same way, JA Job Shadow gives students access to role models at a 1 to 1 ratio, allowing them the attention of an executive for a full day in a way that a classroom never can. In addition to giving students experience and a growing support network, job shadowing helps them develop the self-efficacy that comes from meeting role models who provide positive encouragement and serve as living examples of what’s possible.

4. Rethink curriculum refresh rates

Does the following sound familiar? You work at a secondary school or university, and it’s time for another curriculum update. A committee begins a process to evaluate and revise the skills and knowledge they believe students will need over the next 10 to 15 years. A year or two later, the school begins rolling out new and updated courses and textbooks. But by the time students take their first classes under the new protocol, several years have passed since the committee first formed, and the new curriculum already shows signs of being outdated.

There is another way:

Improve your refresh rate. If you’re old enough to remember flickering television screens, you’re already familiar with refresh rate, which refers to the number of times a TV or computer screen is refreshed, per second. Likewise, with curricula updates, the higher the refresh rate, the more often you’re reviewing and revising your curriculum. Instead of refreshing every 10 to 15 years, curriculum reviews need to happen continuously, with significant updates executed every five years, at most.

Take a lean-manufacturing approach. One of the tenets of lean manufacturing is that one never stops trying to improve processes, no matter how much progress is made and how well efficiencies are achieved. Whether applied to an assembly-line production rate, a hospital’s emergency room wait time, or the line for a ride at Disneyland or KidZania, the goal is to halve the time caused by delays via process improvements that come from the question, “How can we do this better?” Once new processes are introduced to achieve those time reductions, a new goal is set to halve them again, asking, “Okay, now how can we do this better?” Good teachers do this as a matter of habit, but policymakers and educational curriculum committees meet too infrequently to be agile enough to continuously modernize what is taught. One way of remaining agile is to take a page from Ontario’s playbook: the Canadian province focuses on teaching overall objectives, trusting its professional teachers to choose specific objectives that can help achieve them.

Combined, these two simple-to-understand (but difficult-to-execute) approaches have the potential to modernize curriculum development. If schools are continuously refreshing their curricula needs (for example, by creating a system by which teachers, local employers, parents and students can suggest curricular updates in real time and have them evaluated and, possibly, implemented within days or weeks) while also challenging themselves to halve their adoption timeline, and halve it again, schools can begin to update their curricula at the speed of technology – and of society. For schools to keep pace with changing technology, the best investment of resources is the creation of curricular documents that support the idea of teachers as experts in teaching and learning and that focus on skill and competency development . As you may expect, this approach necessitates a greater investment in professional development or requires a lengthier teacher-education program.

5. Push the technology envelope

Students aren’t simply observers of the technology of the future, plodding their way across an ever-changing tech landscape over which they have no control. Instead, young people play a critical role in the direction in which technology develops. Even if the code that students learn, the virtual reality they experience, and the 3D printed objects they design today are hopelessly out of date by the time they enter the workforce, the technology they’re exposed to today teaches them to be unafraid of new developments, to embrace the learning curve of each new advancement, and then to harness it to create the Next Big Thing. Don’t let the perfect interfere with the good: any technology-based learning sets young people up for future technological success.

One generation ago, we used dial-up to connect to Netscape. Amazon was a small online bookstore. Facebook didn’t exist, and neither did Uber, WeChat, M-Pesa, Airbnb, or the iPhone. No one answered if you asked Alexa how to spell “achievement”, and cutting-edge technology in entertainment meant six-CD changers and expensive DVD players. Perhaps more importantly, cancer and AIDS had much higher rates of mortality, and predicting diseases with genetic testing was the subject of science fiction. So just imagine what technological and humanitarian advances today’s youth can deliver a generation from now if they’re trained not only to be consumers of technology, but also the creators, improvers, and extenders of it. To do so, educators need to adapt new curricula at the speed of technology, developing skills and competencies that cannot be readily replaced by computers.