The implications of cattle grazing

The impacts of cattle Overgrazing ranges from
Land Degradation,
Soil Erosion
Loss of useful species
(i) Land Degradation:
Overgrazing removes the vegetal cover over the soil and the
exposed soil gets compacted due to which the operative soil depth
declines. So the roots cannot go much deep into the soil and
adequate soil moisture is not available
Organic recycling also declines in the ecosystem because not
enough detritus or litter remains on the soil to be decomposed. The
humus, content of the soil decreases and overgrazing leads to
organically poor, dry, compacted soil.
Due to trampling by cattle the soil loses infiltration capacity, which
reduces percolation of water into the soil and as a result of this
more water gets lost from the ecosystem along with surface run
off. Thus overgrazing leads to multiple actions resulting in loss of
soil structure, hydraulic conductivity and soil fertility.
(ii) Soil Erosion:
Due to overgrazing by cattle, the cover of vegetation almost gets
removed from the land. The soil becomes exposed and gets eroded
by the action of strong wind, rainfall etc. the grass roots are very
good binders of soil. When the grasses are removed, the soil
becomes loose and susceptible to the action of wind and water.
(iii) Loss of Useful Species:
Overgrazing adversely affects the composition of plant population
and their regeneration capacity. The original grassland consists of
good quality grasses and herbs with high nutritive value.
When the livestock graze upon them heavily, even the root stocks
which carry the reserve food or regeneration get destroyed. Now
some other species appear in their place. These secondary species
are hardier and are less nutritive in nature. Some livestock keep on
overgrazing these species also.
Finally, these effects can be found in many places round the world
but in Nigeria there are additional disadvantages of cattle grazing
and these are most concerned factors; cattle grazing in the Nigeria
leads to so many death of innocent people , lose of villages and
towns to Fulani herdsmen , in fact it has lead to terrorism and the
cattle are regarded as first class citizen in Nigeria


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